Taxonomic information on the Hewigiaceae, with descriptions, keys, illustrations, photographs.

Most information and pictures are mine, otherwise these are properly referenced and linked were possible.

Hope you find this useful.


Efrain De Luna,

Biodiversidad y Sistemática,

INECOL. Xalapa. México.

my website

Contents of this website


Phylogenetic classification

Hedwigiaceae Taxonomic treatment

Keys to genera




Pseudobraunia (link to Flora of North America)




I would appreciate very much your help in adding references on the Hedwigiaceae. Please let me know by email.


References have been added thanks to Denilson Peralta (Herbário SP, São Paulo, SP - Brasil).


Ah-Peng, C. and J. Bardat. 2005. Check list of the bryophytes of Réunion Island (France). Tropical Bryology 26(1): 89-118. DOI: [record of Hedwigidium].

Allen, B. 2010. Moss flora of Central America, Part 3: Anomodontaceae-Symphodontaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. St Louis, USA. pp. 16-30. 731 p.: ill. - (Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden; Vol.117). - Bibliogr.: p.703-714. - Ind.: p.715-731.ISBN 978-1-930723-95-5; ISSN 0161-1542 [descriptions of Hedwigiaceae].

Allred, K. W., K. B. Romig, R. Kleinman, and K. S. Blisard. 2016. Additions to the Bryophyte Flora of New Mexico. Evansia 33(1), 1-4, (1 March 2016). [Five bryophytes are reported as new for the state of New Mexico: Acaulon triquetrum, Braunia andrieuxii, Crossidium squamiferum, Funaria americana, and Scapania irrigua.]

Angely, J. 1961. Flora bryologica do Paraná. Instituto Paranaense de Botanica 20: 1-8.

Angely, J. 1965. Bryophytos paranaenses. In Flora Analítica do Paraná, Curitiba. Phyton 7: p 1-728. [Braunia plicata from Brasil]

Barthlott, W. and Schultze-Motel, W. 1981. Zur Feinstruktur der Blattoberflächen und systematischen Stellung der Laubmoosgattung Rhacocarpus and anderer Hedwigiaceae. Willdenowia 11: 3–11.

Bartram, E. B. 1949. Mosses of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Botany 25: 1-442. [descriptions of Hedwigiaceae].

Beckett, T. W. N. 1894. On four new species of New Zealand Musci. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 26: 274-277. [Hedwigidium].

Bescherelle, E. 1885. Liste des mousses du Paraguay distribuées en 1884 par M. Balansa. Revue Bryologique 2: 17-19.

Bescherelle, P. E. 1892. Musci Yunnanenses. Énumération et description des mousses récoltées par M. l’abbé Delavay en Chine, dans les environs d’Hokin et de Tali (Yunn-nan). Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 7, 15: 47–94 .[Braunia delavayii].

Biasuso, A. B. 1992. El género Braunia (Hedwigiaceae, Musci) en Tucumán. Lilloa 38: 5-21. [Braunia exserta complex].

Biasuso, A. B. 2007. The genus Hedwigia (Hedwigiaceae, Bryophyta) in Argentina. Lindbergia 32: 5–17.

Bizot, M., I. Friis, J. Lewinsky and T. Pócs. 1978. East African bryophytes IV. Danish collections. Lindbergia 4: 259-284. [Hedwigidium].

Blockeel, T. L., G. Abay, B. Çetin, H. Bednarek-Ochyra, R. Ochyra, R. I. Lewis Smith, C. M. Matteri, R. M. Farias, I. Novotný, P. Rao, J. Enroth, J. van Rooy, M. M. Schiavone and J. Vá?a. 2003. New national and regional bryophyte records, 7. Journal of Bryology 25: 141-144. DOI: [Hedwigidium from Argentina].

Bridel, B. S. E. 1819. Methodus Nova Muscorum ad Naturae Normam melius Instituta et Muscologiae Recentiorum Accomodata. Muscologiae Recentiorum Supplementum Pars IV seu Mantissa Generum Specierumque Muscorum Frondosum Universa. Gotha.

Bridel, B. S. E. 1826-27. Bryologia universa seu systematica ad novam methodum dispositio. Ambros, Barth, Lipsiae.

Brinda, J. C., S. He, J. J. Atwood, R. E. Magill and C. Reeb. 2021. Notes on the bryophytes of Madagascar 5: new records from old collections. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 42 (15): 205-211.

Braunia imberbis (Sm.) N.Dalton & D.G.Long
Specimens examined. — Madagascar. Antananarivo: Ankaratra; 2300 m; Bosser 8208 (MO[MO-2130759]!, TAN); VIII.1955. Station forestière de Manjakatompo (Est d’Ambatolampy); 2600 m; Cremers 1705[A] (MO[MO-2112954]!, PC[PC0788286], TAN); 22.VIII.1971. Ankaratra; Ouest d’Ambatolampy; 2500 m; Cremers 1957 (MO[MO-2858803]!, PC[PC0788287], TAN), 27.III.1972.

Britton, E. 1896. An enumeration of the plants collected by H. H. Rusby, in Bolivia, 1885-1886- II. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 23(12): 471. [Hedwigidium].

Brotherus, V. 1899. Ule E. Bryotheca brasiliensis, herausgegeben von Dr. C. H. Brothcrus in Helsingfors, bestimmt von Carl Müller, C. H. Brotherus und C. Warnstorf.  Hedwigia 38 (Beih.): 58: 57-59. [Ule Bryotheca brasiliensis 78: Hedwigia serricola Müll. Hal.; Ule Bryotheca brasiliensis 79:  Braunia serrae Müll. Hal.]

Brotherus, V. F. 1900. Die Laubmoose Der Ersten Regnellschen Expedition. Bihang til Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps- Akademiens Handlingar 26(3)p.1-76, 26(3): p 1-76. [Braunia subincana n. spp]

Brotherus, V. F. 1909. Hedwigiaceae. In: Engler, A. and K. Prantl (eds.). Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 1(3): 712-722. W. Engelman, Leipzig.

Brotherus, V. F. 1923. Musci novi sinensis collecti a Dre. Henr. Handel-Mazzetti. I. Akad. Wiss. Wien Sitzungsber., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Abt. 1, 131: 209–220. [Braunia obtusicuspis].

Brotherus, V. F. 1924. Musci (Laubmoose). Ergebnisse der botanische Expedition der Kaiserlischen Akademie der Wissenschaften nach Sudbrasilien 1901. Band II (Thallophyta und Bryophyta). Pp. 251–358. In: Brotherus V. F. Ergebnisse der Botanischen Expedition nach Südbrasilien, Musci. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, Wien.

[Hedwigia albicans (Web.) Lindb. in Hartm. Sk. Fl. IX. ed. II., p. 54 (1864). Syn. Hedwigia serricola C. Müll, in Ule, Bryoth. brasil. 78. Sa. Catharina. Serra Gérai; ad rupes (Ule Bryoth. brasil. 78). Über die ganze Erde allgemein verbreitet.

Hedwigidium glyphocarpum (Hamp.) Ja eg. Adumbr. II., p. 772 (1877/78). Ad confines Rio de Janeiro — Minas Geraës. In paludosis partis superioris montis Itatiaya; ad truncos Araucariae brasil. (768), ad terram (761) et ad saxa húmida (1925); 2000—2500m s. m.]

Brotherus, V. F. 1925. Hedwigiaceae. In: Engler, A. and K. Prantl (eds.). Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 11(2): 66-75. Engelman, Liepzig.

Bruch, P. and W. P. Schimper. 1846. Hedwigiaceae. In: Bruch, P., W. P. Schimper and W. V. T. Gümbel (eds.). Bryologia Europaea, seu Genera Muscorum Europaeorum monographice illustrate, Vol. III. E. Scheizerbart. Stuttgart, Germany. Pp. 272-275.

Buchbender, V., H. Hespanhol, M. Krug, C. Sérgio, A. Séneca, K. Maul, L. Hedenäs and D. Quandt. 2014. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the Hedwigiaceae reveal cryptic speciation and hybridisation in Hedwigia. Bryophyte Diversity and Evolution 36(1): 1-21. DOI:

Buck, W. R. 1990. Miscellaneous notes on Antillean mosses, 3. Braunia (Hedwigiaceae) and Pseudotaxiphyluim (Hypnaceae) new to the West Indies. Moscosoa 6: 217-218. [Braunia secunda, Hedwgidium integrofolium].

Buck, W. R. & D. H. Norris. 1996. Hedwigia stellata and H. detonsa (Hedwigiaceae) in North America. – Nova Hedwigia 62: 361–370.

Câmara, Paulo E.A.S., M. Carvalho-SilvaI, M. S.. Dias da Silva, D. F. Peralta. 2014. A catalog of Bryophyta types deposited at the National Museum of Brazil. Acta Bot. Bras. 28 (4): 539 - 547.

[Ernst Ule, it is important to note that his collections often have two numbers, one is his personal collection number and the other refers to the exsiccata number in his Bryotheca Brasiliensis (Brotherus 1899). In the present paper, we present his collection number, using his Bryotheca Brasiliensis only when necessary.

-Braunia macrocalyx Müll. Hal., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 110. 1898. - Type: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Serra do Itatiaia, E.Ule 1848, 1849; Agulhas Negras, E.Ule 1850, 1851 (isosyntypes).

-Braunia serrae Müll. Hal., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 111. 1898. - Type: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Serra Geral, E.Ule s.n. (isosyntype).

-Braunia subincana Broth., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 26 Afd. 3(7): 37. 1900. - Type: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Colonia Ijuhy, Lindman 214 (isotype).]

Cardot, J. 1911. Diagnoses préliminaires de mousses mexicaines (9e article). Revue Bryologique 38: 33–43. [Braunia].

Catcheside, D. G. 1980. Hedwigiaceae. In: Mosses of South Australia. Handbook of the flora and fauna of South Australia. D. J. Woolman, Government Printer,South Australian Government. Adelaide, Australia. Pp. 295-296.

Chang Y. & S. W. Graham. 2014. Patterns of clade support across the major lineages of moss phylogeny. Cladistics 30: 590-606. [Hedwigiales at the base of the Bryidae].

Chen, P.-C. et al. 1978. Hedwigiaceae. In: P.-C. Chen (ed.). 1978. Genera Muscorum Sinicorum, II. pp. 19–26. Science Press, Beijing.

Chopra, R. S. 1975. Hedwigiaceae. Taxonomy of Indian mosses, Botanical monograph 10: 294-298. [Hedwigidium].

Churchill, S. P. and E. L. Linares. 1995. Prodromus Bryologiae Novo-Granatensis. Biblioteca J. J. Triana 12: 455-924. [Hedwigidium].

Churchill, S. P. and Fuentes A. 2005. Additions, Combinations, and Synonyms for the Bolivian Moss Flora. Tropical Bryology 26: 119-131, [Braunia reflexifolia in Bolivia, specimen is Tarija: Alarachi Natural Reserve, 2000-2200 m, Churchill et al. 23367 (HSB, MO, USZ).

Churchill S. P. and R. Lozano. 2009. Bryophytes of the Tucuman-Bolivian Montane Forest, Bolivia. Tropical Bryology 30: 19-42.

Braunia argentinica Müll. Hal. – On exposed rocks. 2647 m. Chuquisaca: Lozano et al. 2614 (HSB, MO, USZ).
Braunia exserta Müll. Hal. – On trunk and branches of trees (including Podocarpus parlatorei), and fallen branches, rarely on rocks. 1500–2627 m. Chuquisaca: Lozano et al. 1736 (HSB, LPB, MO, USZ); Santa Cruz: Churchill & Arroyo P. 21210 (MO, USZ); Tarija: Churchill 20792 (BOLV, HSB, LPB, MO, USZ).
Braunia plicata (Mitt.) A. Jaeger [as B. secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp. in Bolivia] – On rocks, logs and trunk of trees. 1100–2837 m. Chuquisaca: Villalobos et al. 325 (HSB, MO, USZ); Tarija: Apaza et al. 10 (HSB, MO).
Braunia reflexifolia (Müll. Hal.) E.B. Bartram – On branches of tree. 2000–2200 m. Tarija: Churchill et al. 23367 (HSB, MO, USZ).
Braunia subincana Broth. – On logs, trunk of trees. 1200–2837 m. Chuquisaca: Apaza et al. 206 (HSB, MO, USZ); Tarija: Apaza et al. 7 (HSB, MO)
Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv. – On rocks. 1970–2410 m. Chuquisaca: Lewis 84-1941 (LPB); Tarija: Lewis 84-2086, 84-2135 (LPB).
Hedwigidium integrifolium (P. Beauv.) Dixon – On rocks. 2050–2250 m. Chuquisaca: Lozano et al. 2866 (HSB, LPB, MO, USZ); Santa Cruz: Inturias et al. 64 (JE, LPB, MO, USZ, VEN); Tarija: Lewis 84-2059 (LPB).

Churchill, S. P. D. Griffin III, and J. Muñoz. 2000. A checklist of the mosses of the tropical Andean countries. Ruizia17: 1-203.

Costa, D. P. and F. M. Lima. 2005. Moss diversity in the tropical rainforests of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28(4): 671-685. DOI: [Hedwigidium].

Costa, D. P., Fernandes-Peralta D., Carvalho-Silva, M. & Câmara, P.E.A.S. 2016. Types of the moss names based on Glaziou’s collections from Brazil. Taxon 65(4): 839-861.

Cox, C. J., B. Goffinet, A. J. Shaw, N. J. Wickett and S. B. Boles. 2010. Moss diversity: A molecular phylogenetic analysis of genera. Phytotaxa 9: 175-195. DOI: [Hedwigiaceae].

CROSBY M.R., SCHULTZE-MOTEL U. & SCHULTZE-MOTEL W., 1983. Katalog der Laubmoose von Madagascar und den umliegenden Inseln. Willdenowia 13: 187-255.

Crum, H. A. 1951. The Appalachian-Ozarkian Element in the Moss Flora of Mexico with a Check-list of All Known Mexican Mosses. PhD thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. [Braunia].

Crum, H. A. 1994. Hedwigiaceae. In: Sharp, A. J., H. A. Crum and P. Eckel (eds.). The moss flora of Mexico. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, USA. pp. 662-666.

Dalton, N. J., E. M. Kungu and D. G. Long. 2012. The misapplication of Hedwigia integrifolia P. Beauv and identity of Gymnostomum imberbe Sm. (Hedwigiaceae, Bryopsida). Journal of Bryology 34(1): 59-61. DOI:

Dalton, N. J., E. M. Kungu and D. G. Long. 2013. A taxonomic revision of Hedwigiaceae Schimp. from the Sino-Himalaya. Journal of Bryology 35: 96-111. DOI:

Daniels, A. E. D. 2010. Checklist of the bryophytes of Tamil Nadu, India. Archive for Bryology 65: 1-117.

Braunia secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp.
– prope Kaitie [Montagne 1842a: 251, as Anoectangium secundum Hook.].
– Nilgheri [Müller 1854: 569].

– Gundara river bank, Palnis, 6300 ft., C.E.C. Fischer 3051 (CAL) [Dixon 1914: 81].
– Kodaikanal, leg. Foreau no. 55 [Potier de la Varde 1923: 72, as Braunia apiculata Cardot, nom.
– Upper Palnis: Kodaikanal [Foreau 1931: 118].

Hedwigidium integrifolium (P.Beauv.) Dixon
– Upper Palnis: Kodaikanal, Shembaganur, leg. Queste [Foreau 1931: 118].

Delgado, J. and Y. León-Vargas. 2017. Musgos (Bryophyta) de bosques de Polylepis sericea (Rosaceae) del estado Mérida (Venezuela). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 52(2): 295-313. DOI: [Hedwigidium].

De Luna E. 1990a. Developmental evidence of acrocarpy in Hedwigia ciliata (Musci: Hedwigiaceae). Tropical Bryology 2: 53 60.

De Luna E. 1990b. Protonemal development in the Hedwigiaceae (Musci), and its systematic significance. Systematic Botany 15: 192-204.

De Luna E. & W.R. Buck. 1991. An undescribed species of Braunia (Hedwigiaceae) from the Andean cloud forest. The Bryologist 94: 401-403. [Braunia nephelogenes].

De Luna, E. 1992. Developmental and systematic studies in the Hedwigiaceae (Musci). PhD. Dissertation. Duke University. Durham, USA. Pp. 216.

De Luna, E. 1995. The circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of the Hedwigiaceae (Musci). Systematic Botany 20(3): 347-373. DOI:

De Luna, E. 1999. (1412) Proposal to conserve the name Braunia Bruch & Schimp. (Musci) against Braunia Hornsch. (Musci). Taxon 48: 385-386.

De Luna, E. 2009. Typification, taxonomy and distribution of Braunia squarrulosa (Hedwigiaceae) in Mexico and Central America. The Bryologist, 112(1): 202–207.

De Luna, E. 2016. Typification, taxonomy, and worldwide distribution of Braunia secunda (Hook.) Bruch and Schimp. (Hedwigiaceae). Journal of Bryology 38(4): 286-294. DOI:

De Luna, E. 2021. Seta length variation and the refutation of Hedwigidium = Braunia (Hedwigiaceae, Bryopsida). Acta Botanica Mexicana 128: e1810. DOI:

De Luna E. 2021. A synopsis of Braunia (Hedwigiaceae, Bryopsida) in Mexico, with the lectotypification of Braunia andrieuxii. Acta Botanica Mexicana 128: e1950.

De Luna, E. & Gómez-Velasco, G. 2008. Morphometrics and the identification of Braunia andrieuxii and B. secunda (Hedwigiaceae: Bryopsida). Systematic Botany, 33(2): 219-228.

De Notaris, G. 1838. Syllabus Muscorum in Italia et in insulis circumstantibus huqusque cognitorum. Taurini.

De Notaris, G. 1869. Epilogo della briologia italiana. ATTI della R. Universitá di Genova.715-718. [p717 Hedwigia ciliata concolor ... folia ad apicem concoloria, vel vix canescentia, in sico adpressa, secundata. Folia perichaetalia quorum interiora angustiora parce fimbrillifera DNtrs Syllab. l.c. Erbar. Crittogam. ital no. 1017.]

Dixon, H. N. 1920. Reports upon two collections of mosses from British East Africa. I. The mosses of the Dummer-MacLennan expedition to Mount Elgon, 1918. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 72: 1-20. [Braunia].

Dixon, H. N. 1927. Studies in the bryology of New Zealand, with special reference to the herbarium of Robert Brown. Part V. Bulletin, New Zealand Institute 3(5): 239-298. [Hedwigidium].

Dixon, H. N. and H. G. Jameson. 1896. The student's handbook of British mosses. V. T. Sumfield. Eastbourne, UK. 696 pp. [Hedwigidium].

Düll, R. 1992. Distribution of the European and Macaronesian mosses (Bryophytina). Annotations and progress. Bryologische Beiträge 8/9. Published by the author. Duisburg, Germany. 223 pp. [Hedwigidium].

Enroth, J., Tamás Pócs, Xiaolan He, Petri Nyqvist, Åsa Stam, Itambo Malombe & Jouko Rikkinen. 2019. An annotated checklist of the bryophytes of Taita Hills region, Kenya. Acta Mus. Siles. Sci. Natur., 68: 53-66. [Braunia camptoclada].

Erdag A, M. Kirmaci & H. Kürschner. 2003. The Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) Ehr. ex P.Beauv. Complex in Turkey, with a New Record, H. ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp. (Hedwigiaceae, Bryopsida). Turk J Bot. 27: 349-356.

Fife, A. J. 2014. Fascicle 14: Hedwigiaceae. In: Heenan, P. B., I. Breitwieser and A. D. Wilton (eds.). Flora of New Zealand-Mosses. Manaaki Whenua Press. Lincoln, New Zealand. DOI:

Fleischer, M. 1906. Die Musci der Flora von Buitenzorg: zugleich Laubmoosflora von Java, Part 5, Vol 3. E. J. Brill. Leiden, The Netherlands. 1103 pp. DOI:

Frahm, J.-P. 1976. Ein Fund von Hedwigidium integrifolium (P.Beauv.) Dix. in den Südalpen. Nova Hedwigia 27: 773-780.

Frahm, J.-P. 1996. Revision der Gattung Rhacocarpus Lindb. (Musci). Cryptogamie-Bryologie et Lichénologie 17: 39-65.

Frahm, J.-P. 2013. The range of Braunia alopecura revised. Archive for Bryology 180: 1-5.

Frahm, J.-P. 2013. The identity of Braunia alopecura (Brid.) Limpr. with Braunia secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp. Archive for Bryology 195: 1-5. [B. alopecura .... identical with the neotropical Braunia secunda.]

Fuentes, A. and S. Churchill. 2005. Ecologia en Bolivia 40: 170-198.

Braunia cirrhifolia (Mitt.) Wilson ex A. Jaeger, saxícola; La Paz, Prov. Franz Tamayo, Pelechuco-Pata; Prov. Larecaja, Mapiri. 3.150 m. Ref.: Herzog 1934. Lewis 88-1889.

Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) Ehrh. ex P. Beauv., La Paz, Prov. Franz Tamayo, Pelechuco. 3.000 m. Ref.: Williams 1910.

Fuertes, E.s C. Prada and C. Rolleri. 2015. Aportaciones a la flora briofítica de los bosques tropicales y subtropicales de la Argentina (Bryophyta, Musci). Botanica Complutensis 39: 49-61. [records of B. exserta, B. reflexifolia, B- tucumanensis, and H. imberbe, as B. imberbis].

Gallego MT, MJ Cano & J. Guerra. 2014. New chorological data on Hedwigia striata (Bruch & Schimp.) Bosw., (Hedwigiaceae, Musci) in Spain, and remarks on its morphological characters. Annales de Biología 36: 5-9.

Gilmore, S. R. 2012. Australian Mosses Online. 4: Hedwigiaceae. Australian Biological Resources Study. Canberra, Australia. (Nov, 2020). [Hedwigia ciliata, Hedwigidium im berbe, as H. integrifolium. For H. ciliata: The length of the hyaline part of the leaf apex can vary greatly between specimens, and it is occasionally lacking.]

Hampe, E. 1838. Musci frondosi tres novi florae mexicanae. Linnaea 12: 349-350. [Braunia squarrulosa].

Hampe, E. 1844. Icones Muscorum novorum vel minus cognitorum. Decas secunda. 19. Sumptibus Henry & Cohen, Bonnae.

Hampe, E. 1863. Species novas muscorum ad Alexandro Lindigio in Nova Granada collectas. Linnaea 32: 127-164.

Hampe, E. 1878. Symbolæ ad floram Brasiliæ centralis cognoscendam. Particula XXIV, Musci frondosi, a clar. Dr. A. Glaziou in vicinia Urbis Rio de Janeiro lecti. (continuatio) Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn. ser. 3, 10: 251- 274.

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He, S. 1998. A checklist of the mosses of Chile. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 85: 103-189. [Hedwigidium].

He, S. and E. De Luna. 2004. The Genus Braunia (Bryopsida, Hedwigiaceae) in China. The Bryologist 107(3): 373-376. DOI:[0373:TGBBHI]2.0.CO;2

Hedenäs, L. 1994. The Hedwigia ciliata complex in Sweden, with notes on the occurrence of the taxa in Fennoscandia. Journal of Bryology 18: 139-157.

Hedenäs, L. 1998. Hedwigiales. In: Nyholm, E. (ed.), Illustrated flora of Nordic mosses, Fasc. 4: 368-372. Nordic Bryological Society, Copenhagen and Lund.

Hermann, F. J. 1976. Recopilación de los musgos de Bolivia. The Bryologist 79(2): 125-171. DOI: [Hedwigidium].

Herzog, T. 1916. Die Bryophyten meiner zweiten Reise durch Bolivia. Bibliotheca Bothanica 87: 1-347.

— 104 —

H e d w i g i a Ehrh. Hann. Mag.
444. Hedwigia albicans (Web.) Lindb.
An Felsen der Estradillas über Incacorral, ca. 3100 m. No. 3308.
Hedwigidium Bryol. eur.
445. Hedwigidium imberbe (Sm.) Bryol. eur.
An trockenen Felsen besonders der Trockenseite des Hochgebirges häufig; z. B. im Cho-
cayatal, ca. 3300 m, No. 3583; am Tunarisee, ca. 4400 m, No. 4914.
var. macrocalyx C. M.
Auf Felsblöcken bei Calachacca an der Waldgrenze des Rio Saujana, ca. 3400 m, No. 3254.

— 105 —
B r a u n i a Bryol. our.
446. Braunia cirrhifoHa (Wils.) Jaeg.
An sonnigen Felsen besonders auf der Trockenseito des Mittelgebirges häufig.
An der Cuesta de Sta. Gatarina bei Comarapa, ca. 2400 m, No. 3703; am Cerro Pampalarga
über Vallegrande, ca. 2500 m, No. 4147; an einem Berggrat über Comarapa, ca. 2600 m,
No. 4230 (f. falcata); daselbst, No. 3951 (f. longipila); bei Très Cruces in der Cord, von
Santa Cruz, ca. 1500 m (f. canescens).
Zu dieser vielgestaltigen Art gehören, wie schon Brotherus bemerkt, B. canescem Schimp.,
B. argyrotricha C. M. u. B. incana C. M.
447. Braunia argentinica C. M.
Im Wald bei Yuto (N. Argentinien), ca. 400 m. No. 5155.
448. Braunia subplicata E. Britt.
An Felsblöcken im Ghocayatal, ca. 3400 m, No. 2585.
449. Braunia secunda Schimp.
Auf Felsblöcken im Ghocayatal große Rasen bildend, ca. 3400 m. No. 3462.
450. Braunia laxifolia Herzog nov. spec.
Laxe caespitosa, amoene viridis, caulibus 6 — 8 cm longis a basi ramosis, ramis longioribus ramu-
lisque stolonoideis crebris flagelliformibus apice radicantibus. Folia laxe patula, subsquarrosa,
concavissima, ultra 2 mm longa, e basi contracta subamplectante late ovata, breviter api-
culata, margine usque ad apicem late revoluto, apiculo tenui eroso, subeplicata vel leviter
plicata, cellulis subrotundis vel ovalibus dorso tenerrime papillosis; perichaetialia alte convoluta, 5 mm
longa, angusta, dense plicata. Seta 10 mm longa, recta; theca ovata, 2,5 mm longa, microstoma.
Auf schattigen Felsblöcken im Ghocayatal, ca. 3400 m. No. 3618.
Durch die lockeren, weit abstehenden und fast ungefalteten Blätter unterschieden. Vielleicht eine
extreme Schattenform von B. subplicata E. Britt.
451. Braunia divaricatula Herzog nov. spec.
Densiuscule caespitosa, habitu quodam macromitrioideo, e viridi fuscescens, caulibus 5 cm longis
valde ramosis tenuibus siccis duriusculis. Folia dens a, minuta, valde divaricata, sub-
squarrosa, sicca sublaevia vel leviter plicata, concava, e basi contracta breviter ovata vel subpanduriformia,
acuminata, acumine decolori piliformi papilloso, in sum m is longiusculo
f r a g i 1 i, margine ubique — acumine excepto — angustius revoluto, integerrima, cellulis omnibus valde
incrassatis dorso tenerrime papillosis. Sterilis.
Auf einem Berggrat über Gomarapa, ca. 2600 m. No. 4243.
Durch die sehr kleinen, sparrig abstehenden Blätter und stark verdickten Zellwände leicht zu

Herzog, T. 1920. Die Bryophyten meiner zweiten Reise durch Bolivia. Nachtrag. Bibliotheca Botanica.

B r a u n i a Bryol. eur.
Braunia cirrhifolia (Wils.). Diese in der Bergregion der Ostkordillere und des interandinen Gebietes
offenbar weit verbreitete Art kommt auch epiphytisch — auf Baumrinde — in den Randwäldern Nord-
argentiniens auf den Hügelschwellen zwischen Aguarai und Yacuiba bei ca. 500 m vor.

Hodgetts, N. G. 2015. Checklist and country status of European bryophytes-towards a new Red List for Europe. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 84. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. Dublin, Ireland. 125 pp. [Hedwigidium].

Hooker, W. J. 1818. Musci Exotici; containing figures and descriptions of new or little known foreign mosses and other cryptogamic subjects. Vol. 1. Longman, London.

Hooker, W. J. and T. Taylor. 1827. Muscologia Britannica, containing the mosses of Great Britain and Ireland, systematically arranged and described; with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species. 2nd ed., Corrected and Enlarged. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green. London, UK. 272 pp. [Hedwigidium].

Hornschuch, C. F. 1828. Review of Bridel Bryologia Universa. Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Kritik 55/56: 442-472 [fide Margadant 1968].

Howe, M. A. 1897. Notes on California bryophytes. Erythea 5(8): 91. [H. ciliata var detonsa n. var.]

Hugonnot, V. 2015. Five remarkable bryophytes from the eastern part of the Pyrenees. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Briología 44-45: 37-43. [Hedwigidium, as B. imberbis].

Husnot, P. T. 1890. Muscologia gallica: descriptions and figures des mousses de France et des contrées voisines. 1: 142-143. [Hedwigidium].

Ignatova, E. A., O. I. Kuznetsova, V. E. Fedosov and M. S. Ignatov. 2016. On the genus Hedwigia (Hedwigiaceae, Bryophyta) in Russia. Arctoa 25: 241-277.

Ignatova, E.A., O.I. Kuznetsova & M.S. Ignatov. 2017. Further comments on the genus Hedwigia (Hedwigiaceae, Bryophyta) in Russia. Arctoa 26(1): 132–143.

Jaeger A. 1876. Genera et species muscorum systematice disposita seu Adumbratio florae muscorum totius orbis terrarum. Berich über die Thätigkeit der St. Gallischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft VI: 85–188.

Jaeger, A. 1876. Adumbratio flore muscorum totius orbis terrarum. Part 6. Bericht über die Thätigkeit der St. Gallischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft 1874-1875: 85-188.

Jaeger, A. 1880. Adumbratio flore muscorum totius orbis terrarum. Bericht über die Thätigkeit der St. Gallischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, Part 10. 1874-1875: 508.

Jaeger, A. 1880. Adumbratio flore muscorum totius orbis terrarum. Bericht über die Thätigkeit der St. Gallischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, Part 10. 1874-1875: 508.

Kis, G. 1985. Mosses of South-East Tropical Africa. An annotated list with distributional data. Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Vácratót, Hungary. Pp. 170.

Le Bail, J. 2015. Redécouverte de Braunia imberbis (Sm.) N. Dalton and D.G. Long (Hedwigidium integrifolium) (Revel) Bouvet en Loire-Atlantique. E.R.I.C.A. 28: 53-57. [Hedwigidium].

Lee S. H. Jin-Kap AHN, Seung Jin PARK, Chul Hwan KIM and Seung Se CHOI. 2020. The flora of land plants (bryophytes and vascular plants) in Wangpicheon Ecosystem and Landscape Conservation Area (ELCA), Korea. Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 50(3): 279−317. [Hedwigia ciliata listed, specimen PARK 17031239].

Lemos-Michel, E. 1999. Briófitas epífiticas sobre Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) Kuntze no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tese de Doutorado Universidade de São Paulo. 318p. [Braunia, w. illustrations].

Liu, Z.-L. et al. 1989. Mosses and liverworts, pp. 267–413. In: B.-S. Xu (ed.): Cryptogamic Flora of the Yangtze Delta and Adjacent Regions. Science and Technology Publisher, Shanghai. [treated B. alopecura as B. delavayii ].

Liu, Z.-L. et al. 1993. Bryophyta, pp. 47–96. In: M.-Z. Zhang & M. J. Lai (eds.): Plants of Five provinces in East China. Science and Technology Publisher, Shanghai.

Liu, Y., M. G. Johnson, C. J. Cox, R. Medina, N. Devos, A. Vanderpoorten, L. Hedenäs, N. E. Bell, J. R. Shevock, B. Aguero, D. Quandt, N. J. Wickett, A. J. Shaw and B. Goffinet. 2019. Resolution of the ordinal phylogeny of mosses using targeted exons from organellar and nuclear genomes. Nature Communications 10(1): 1485. DOI: [Hedwigiaceae].

López-Miranda, A. 1993. Catálogo de la flora del Departamento de La Libertad (primera parte). Arnaldoa 1(3): 15-44. [Hedwigia ciliata, Prov. Otuzco: Los Alisos, Agallpampa. 2900 m. Hegewald 5084, EPH]

Lorentz, P. G. 1864. Moosstudien 1–171. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Lovanomenjanahary Marline, Roger Lala Andriamiarisoa, Jacques Bardat, Min Chuah-Petiot, Terry A.J. Hedderson, et. al. 2012. Checklist of the Bryophytes of Madagascar. Cryptogamie, Bryologie, 33(3) : 199-255. [Cremers 1705, 1957, Bosser 8208, as Braunia secunda; citation of Crosby et al 1983 for Hedwigia ciliata var ciliata].

Luisier, A. 1909. Contribution a L'Étude des muscinées de Madére. Brotéria, serie Botanica 8: 31-45.   [H. albicans (Web.) Ldb. — Lombo Grande, avril 1891. ]

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Mahú, M. 1979. Familias y géneros de musgos chilenos. The Bryologist 82(4): 513-524. DOI: [Hedwigidium].

Margadant, W. D. 1968. Early bryological literature. Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburg.

Matteri C. M. 2003. Los musgos de Argentina. Tropical Bryology 24: 33-100.

B. cirrhifolia (Mitt.) A. Jaeger, Ber. Thatigk. St. Gall. Naturwiss. Ges. 1874-75: 171, 1876. Dist. CO (von Huebschmann 1986, Biasuso 1992), SA, TU (Biasuso 1992).
B. cochlearifolia Müll. Hal., Hedwigia 36: 105, 1897.
Dist. BA (Müller 1897), CO (Hosseus 1938, von Huebschmann 1986).
B. exserta Müll. Hal., Linnaea 42: 379, 1879. Dist. JU (Biasuso 1992), TU (Bartram 1965, Biasuso 1992).
B. plicata (Mitt.) A. Jaeger, Ber. Thatigk. St. Gall. Naturwiss. Ges. 1874-75: 171, 1876. Dist. CO (von Huebschmann 1986).
B. reflexifolia (Müll. Hal.) E. B. Bartram, Rev. Bryol. Lichenol. 33: 326, 1964-65 [1965]. Dist. TU (Bartram 1965, Biasuso 1992).
B. secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp., in Bruch, Schimp. & T. Gümbel, Bryol. Eur. 3: 161, 1846. Dist. CO, TU (Biasuso 1992).

B. tucumanensis Biasuso, Lilloa 38(1): 12, 1992.
Dist. TU (Biasuso 1992).

H. integrifolium (P. Beauv.) Dixon, in C. E. O. Jensen, Skand. Bladmossfl. 369, 1939.
Dist. TU (Müller 1879).

Mazar-Ul-Islam, J. A. and A. M. Muhamad-Fiaz. 2016. Taxonomic cheracterization of some moss families of Mansehra, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences 9(1): 62-168. [Hedwigia ciliata, Mansehra is dominated by high mountains varying in elevation from 1900 m in the south to over 4900 m above sea level].

Meagher, D. and B. A. Fuhrer. 2003. Field guide to the mosses and allied plants of southern Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study. Canberra, Australia. 280 pp. [Hedwigidium].

Menzel, M. 1986. Beitrag zur andinen Laubmoosflora von Peru. Willdenowia 15: 529-555. [Hedwigidium].

Menzel, M. 1992. Preliminary checklist of the mosses of Peru (Studies on Peruvian Bryophytes IV). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 71: 175–254.

Mitten, W. 1869. Musci Austro-Americani. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 12: 1-659.

Montagne, C. 1842. Cryptogamœ Nilgherienses seu Plantarum cellularium in montibus peninsulœ indicae Neel-Gherries dictis à cl. Perrottet collectarum Enumeratio. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Ser. 2, t17: 243-256.

[32. Anoectangium secundum Hook. Musc. Exot. t. 46 ( sub Hedwigia). Brid. 1. c. p. 165. — Hab. ad rupes basalticas prope Kaitie lectum. Obs. Folia non solùm marginata , sed etiam caulina basi , perichaetialia verô toto margine recurva, innovationum tandem in acumen piliforme cirrbosum educta sunt. ]

Müller, C. 1851. Synopsis muscorum frondosorum omnium hucusque cognitorum II. Sumptibus Alb. Foerstner. Berolini, Germania. p. 105.

Müller, C. 1879. Prodromus bryologiae Argentinicae, I. Linnaea 42: 217-460.

Müller, C. 1882. Prodromus Bryologiae Argentinicae II. Seu Musci Lorentziani II. Linnaea 43: 343-486.

Müller, C. 1898. Bryologia serrae Itatiaiae (Minas Geraës Brasiliae) adjectis nonnullis speciebus affinibus regionum vicinarum. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 6: 18–126. [Braunia macrocalyx n. sp. Braunia serrae n. sp.]

Müller, C. 1899. Sammlunggen. Ule E. Bryotheca brasiliensis, herausgegeben von Dr. C. H. Brotherus in Helsingfors, bestimmt von Carl Müller, C. H. Brotherus und C. Warnstorf. Hedwigia (Beiblatt) 38: 53-60.

Müller, F. 2009. An updated checklist of the mosses of Chile. Archive for Bryology 58: 1-124.

Nyholm, E. C. 1960. Illustrated Moss Flora of Fennoscandia, II. Musci. Fasc. 4. Swedish Natural Science Research Council, C. W. K. Gleerup Publs. Stockholm. Pp. 408.

O´Shea, B. J. 2006. Checklist of the mosses of sub-Saharan Africa (version 5, 12/06). Tropical Bryology Research Reports 6: 1-252.

Palisot de Beauvois, A-M-F-J. 1805. Prodrome des Cinquième et Sixième Familles de l'Aethéogamie. Les Mousses. Les Lycopodes. Paris : de l'imprimerie de Fournier fils; chez l'auteur, rue du Parc, N.° 511, au Marais; chez Fournier fils, impr.-lib., rue des Rats, N.° 3. 114 pp. [Hedwigia integrifolia, original description on p 60].

Paris, E. G. 1896. Index Bryologicus sive, Enumeratio muscorum hucusque cognitorum adjunctis Synonymia distributioneque geographica locupletissimus. P. Klincksieck. Paris, Gallia. p. 555.

Paris, E. G. 1900. Index Bryologicus sive Enumeratio muscorum hucusque cognitorum adjunctis Synonyma distributioneque geographica locupletissimis. Supplementum Primum. Georg, Genua, Italia. p. 179. [Hedwigidium].

Ramírez-Padilla, B. R. 2013. Riqueza y distribucion de musgos en el departamento de Cauca, Colombia. Bol. Cient. Mus. Hist. Nat. 17 (2): 17 - 37. [Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv. - A: 2450-3360 m, Hedwigidium integrifolium (P. Beauv.) Dixon - A: 2980-3700 m]

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Robinson, H., L. B. Holm-Nielsen, and B. LØJTNANT. 1977. Mosses of Ecuador, II. Lindbergia 4:105-116. [Braunia].

Rodríguez E. F., K. Monzon-Licera and E. Alvítez-Izquierdo. 2017. Catálogo de las briofitas de la región La Libertad, Perú. Arnaldoa 24(1): 247-266.

Braunia cirrhifolia (Mitt.) A. Jaeger DG: OT. 2700 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H Hegewald 7226 (EPH, HUI).
Braunia plicata (Mitt.) A. Jaeger DG: OT, SC. 2000 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H Hegewald 5054 (EPH, MO).
Braunia rupestris (Mitt.) A. Jaeger DG: OT. 2700 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H. Hegewald 7215 (EPH, HUT, MO).  Espécimen determinado como B. secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp.en el herbario HUT.
Braunia sp. 1 DG: OT. 2690 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H. Hegewald 5169 (EPH, MO).
Braunia sp. 2 DG: SC. 3150 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H Hegewald 6013 (EPH, MO).
Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv. DG: OT. 2900 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H Hegewald 5084 (EPH, HUT). Especie citada por López (1993) bajo esta misma colección.
Hedwigia nivalis (Müll. Hal.) Mitt. DG: OT, SC. 2200-3050 m. ER: P. D. Hegewald & E. H Hegewald 7216 (EPH, MO).

Hedwigidium imberbe (Sm.) Bruch & Schimp.DG: OT, SC, ST. 2690-3400 m. ER: A. Sagástegiu A. 11108 (HUT, MO), P. D. Hegewald & E. H Hegewald 5130 (EPH, HUT, MO).

Ros, R. M, V. Mazimpaka, U. Abou-Salama, M. Aleffi, T. L. Blockeel, M. Brugués, R. M. Cros, M. G. Dia, G. M. Dirkse, I. Draper, W. El-Saadawi, A. Erda? A, A. Ganeva, R. Gabriel, J. M. González-Mancebo, C. Granger, I. Herrnstadt, V. Hugonnot, K. Khalil, H. Kürschner, A. Losada-Lima, L. Luís, S. Mifsud, M. Privitera, M. Puglisi, M. Sabovljevi?, C. Sérgio, H. M. Shabbara, M. Sim-Sim, A. Sotiaux, R. Tacchi, A. Vanderpoorten and O. Werner. 2013. Mosses of the Mediterranean, an annotated checklist. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 34(2): 99-283. DOI : [Hedwigidium].

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Sainsbury, G. O. K. 1955. A handbook of the New Zealand mosses. Bulletin of the Royal Society of New Zealand 5: 1-490. [Hedwigidium].

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Schäfer-Verwimp A. and Lüth, M. 2004. Additions to the Bryophyte Flora of the Neotropics. Tropical Bryology 25:  7-17. [Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea, new to South America].

Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp.
Estado Mérida: Sierra Nevada, road Valera - Aguila Pass, block field in Páramo near Aguila Pass, on sunny boulder, 3900 m, 14.3.2001, leg. M. Lüth 3245; Sierra Nevada, Laguna Coromoto, Subpáramo, on a sunny boulder, 3000 m, 16.3.2001, leg. M. Lüth 3304.
Note: Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea is characterized by a long hyaline and papillose leaf apex (22- 55% of the leaf length, Hedenäs 1994), that is pure white and strongly contrasted by the rest of the leaf and leaf margins sometimes recurved below and plane above. All Hedwigia, that have been collected hitherto in Latin America belong to H. nivalis (M. Müll.) Mitt. (Allen, in prep.), which also can have a long hyaline leaf apex. The type of H. nivalis comes from the same area, Merida in Venezuela (Buck & Norris 1996) where H. ciliata var. leucophaea now was collected two times. H. nivalis differs from the latter taxon by the presence of incurved upper leaf margins, while those of H. ciliata var. leucophaea are plane (Allen, in prep.).
Distr.: Europe, western North America; new to Latin America.

Scott, G. A. M. and I. G. Stone. 1976. The Mosses of Southern Australia. Academic Press. London, UK. Pp. 495. [Hedwigidium].

Sehnem, A. 1976. Musgos sul-brasileiros IV. Pesquisas, Botânica 30: 1-79. [Braunia plicata, w. illustrations].

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Smith, J. E. 1811. English Botany, Vol 32. R. Taylor and Co. London, UK. Pp. 2237. [Hedwigidium].

Smith, A. J. E. 1978. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. Pp. 706. [Hedwigidium].

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Yano, O. 2011.Catálogo de musgos brasileiros: literatura original, basiônimo, localidade-tipo e distribuição geográfica. Instituto de Botânica, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente. São Paulo. São Paulo, Brasil. 180 pp. [Hedwigidium].